DaVinci Institute https://www.davinciinstitute.com DaVinci Institute Thu, 06 Oct 2016 22:59:05 +0000 en-US hourly 1 What We Can Offer You That A Typical Office For Rent Can’t https://www.davinciinstitute.com/in-coworking-space/what-we-can-offer-you-that-a-typical-office-for-rent-cant/ Sun, 15 May 2016 15:29:56 +0000 https://www.davinciinstitute.com/?p=772 davinciCoWorkCTA2People come to the DaVinci Institute’s coworking space for any number of reasons. Some are looking to get out of the house and work more efficiently, while others are ready to stop working for someone else so that they can pursue their own dreams. It doesn’t matter why they’re here; either way they’ll reap the benefits of a coworking space that a typical office for rent can’t provide.

What are these benefits? Glad you asked! Here are three specific tenets of coworking spaces that can help you grow.


No one does it alone. Even if you’re starting a company and have the greatest idea in the world, eventually you’re going to have to find someone who can perform a task that just isn’t in your skillset. When that time comes, we’re pretty sure you’ll already have met someone at the DaVinci Institute who you can collaborate with and can fill that need.


There are two aspects to learning at the DaVinci Institute. First, when you collaborate, you learn from the person you’re collaborating with, and you become better at that task.

Second, DaVinci hosts events and educational workshops that are available to those who use our shared office space. Not only that, but we also offer DaVinci Coders, the fastest coding bootcamps so that you can learn the most in-demand computer code out there.


When you’re in a coworking community, you’re supported. Because few if any of those in the space are in direct competition with each other, there’s a great feeling of community. This is fostered not only by the time you spend around people every day but also by the events that you can attend with them.

The typical office for rent just won’t give you what the DaVinci Institute can. Ready to take full advantage of the best coworking space in the Denver area? Schedule a tour today!



Business Innovators’ Mike Saunders Interviews Thomas Frey https://www.davinciinstitute.com/uncategorized/business-innovators-mike-saunders-interviews-thomas-frey/ Wed, 11 May 2016 18:30:38 +0000 https://www.davinciinstitute.com/?p=749 About Mike Saunders, MBA

Mike Saunders holds an MBA in Marketing and serves the small business market.
In addition to coaching and consulting clients in his firm Marketing Huddle, he teaches Marketing as an Adjunct Marketing Professor at several Universities.

Mike is a published author and contributing iReporter for National publications covering business professionals in a variety of industries.

As an Authority Positioning Strategist, he helps businesses market their reputation, build credibility and helps them become Amazon Best-Selling authors….without having to write a word.

Learn more: www.MarketingHuddle.com

Surprising Reasons People Love Working in Our Shared Office Space https://www.davinciinstitute.com/in-coworking-space/surprising-reasons-people-love-working-in-our-shared-office-space/ Thu, 05 May 2016 15:26:36 +0000 https://www.davinciinstitute.com/?p=769  

Some advantages of a shared office space are obvious. You get out of the house and meet a lot of interesting people with similar values. But there are some advantages of working from a coworking space in the Denver area that aren’t so obvious. Here are some great reasons to choose a coworking space over regular office work.

Office Politics

People are generally happier in a coworking space because they can get away from so much of the office politics that take up time and mental real estate. Because everyone is working for different companies (often their own), there’s no need to complain about the latest changes to the health plan or to talk about the latest poor decisions from the CEO. Shared office spaces allow you to get away from such distractions.

Be Yourself

Another advantage of working in a coworking space instead of a traditional office environment is that you can be yourself. You don’t have to fit into “corporate culture,” and you don’t have to brown nose anyone, because there’s no one to brown nose! (Even better, you don’t have to watch other people be sycophantic!) Just be yourself, because everyone can find a place at the DaVinci Institute coworking space.


Because everyone at a shared office space is working for themselves or for separate entities, each person has a story to tell. When you start coworking with us, no one knows your project. Telling others about what you’re working on and how it can change the world can be a great way to feel good about your work. It’s also a great way to focus your project and distill any pitches you might have.

Coworking in a shared office space offers advantages like no other way to work. Get away from where you live and schedule a tour at DaVinci’s coworking space!




Top 3 Benefits of a Coworking Space In The Denver Area https://www.davinciinstitute.com/in-coworking-space/top-3-benefits-of-a-coworking-space-in-the-denver-area/ Tue, 16 Feb 2016 15:59:58 +0000 http://www.davinciinstitute.com/?p=646 Welcome to the DaVinci Institute coworking space! If you know anything about the DaVinci institute, you know we’re dedicated to helping people make the most of their time, interests, and natural abilities. That not only applies to the classes we provide at DaVinci Coders but also to our coworking space in Westminster.

Coworking spaces are an amazing alternative to renting office space, and has many advantages that office rental can’t give you. For example:

It Gets You Out Of The House: Some people can work at home. They can get a solid eight hours a day in and never get distracted by their environment. Others of us are less lucky…we’re distracted by laundry to do, dishes to wash, Playstations to be played! When you work in a coworking space like ours, it gets you out of the house so that you can’t go look for something to distract you from work.

It’s Cheaper Than Regular Office Space For Rent: Office space is expensive, and as Denver and Boulder continue to grow, office space in both cities and everywhere in between is getting more and more expensive. Startups and entrepreneurs are getting squeezed out and can’t afford small office space for rent. What’s someone on a limited budget to do? Coworking! Stop by for a tour and you’ll be able to see everything it can offer you. We even have executive suites!

You’re surrounded!: Perhaps the greatest advantage of using a co-working space is that you’re surrounded by some amazingly bright minds and like-minded people who are excited about the work they’re doing. Coders meet designers, writers meet video professionals, sellers meet buyers. It’s like you’re constantly networking and meeting new people who can provide exactly what you’re looking for. Trust us, there’s nothing like it.

So there you have it, three great reasons why using a coworking space can be an amazing benefit. But that’s true of all coworking spaces…what’s so special about the cowork space at DaVinci Coders? Check the next blog to find out!

3 Benefits Of A Coworking Space At The DaVinci Institute https://www.davinciinstitute.com/in-coworking-space/3-benefits-of-a-coworking-space-at-the-davinci-institute/ Tue, 16 Feb 2016 15:58:45 +0000 http://www.davinciinstitute.com/?p=644 We wrote in the last blog about the advantages of using a coworking space. But those are the advantages you can get in any old coworking space…what makes the coworking space at DaVinci institute so special?

The View! Hey Denver…we see your 5280 feet and raise you! The office space we have for rent is at the highest point in the Denver area, and our views are incredible (especially since we’re on the second floor). Other coworking spaces are often in strip malls and have offices that are simply facing the wrong direction or have other buildings in the way, obliterating the inspiring view.

Location: We’ve got a couple of advantages here. Just about everyone in Denver has easy highway access to meet up at our Westminster shared office space. Most of the time they can get here faster than they can if they try to fight traffic through the city, and it’s an excellent central place if you have multiple parties coming from Boulder, Denver, Longmont, Westminster, Thornton, and Broomfield. We’re also right across from the Westminster Park-N-Ride, so there’s very little walking if someone is taking the bus.

Events: We’re dedicated to helping everyone learn, whether they’re here for coworking or as part of DaVinci coders. That’s why we have events that can help your career and your business, such as LinkedIn courses and demos of programming languages.

Working at DaVinci’s coworking space gives distinct advantages to working at home or in traditional office space for rent. Schedule a tour, because we’d love to show you all of our advantages!

Top 7 Amenities At The DaVinci Institute Coworking Space https://www.davinciinstitute.com/in-coworking-space/top-7-amenities-at-the-davinci-institute-coworking-space/ Tue, 16 Feb 2016 15:58:01 +0000 http://www.davinciinstitute.com/?p=642 We’ve got some great rates on office space for rent in the Westminster and Denver areas, but you might be wondering if a coworking space is right for you business. Maybe you’re thinking that getting your own office for rent is better, even though it’s probably more expensive.

If you’re considering getting your own office space, remember that you not only have the cost of the rent, but often the cost of water and heat and well. And that that’s just the beginning. Take a look at all of the amenities that you’ll get that are included in your rental when you sign up with DaVinci Institute’s coworking space.

Free Internet: We’re going to go ahead and assume that your business doesn’t run without the use of the internet. Here at the DaVinci Institute’s coworking space, we’ve got free (and fast) wi-fi. That’s saving you $50-$100 bucks a month at least!

Furnishings: How much does office furniture cost? We’ll, you might pick some up on craigslist for not that much, but it’s not the kind that’s going to impress potential customers and partners. Our offices and executive suites come pre-furnished with some comfortable, great-looking furniture so that you don’t have to worry about getting your own.

24/7 Access: If you rent your own office space, we admit that there’s a good chance you’re going to have 24/7 access. But if you trip the alarm, you’re going to have to deal with the security service, which can be a pain. Oh, and did we mention you’ll have to pay for a security service, too!

Community Kitchen: Oh, here’s a big one. If you rent your own office space, there’s not much chance you’re going to have a kitchen. You’ll have to bring in your own microwave and refrigerator, and then you’ll have to hide them to ensure that clients don’t realize just how small your space is. Then you’ll have to clean it all yourself. Oh, and if you don’t bring your own food in, you’ll just eat out every day, which gets very expensive after a while. Here at our coworking space, we’ve got a community kitchen so that you can get away from your desk for a few minutes and network with anyone else who might be there.

Free Coffee, Espresso, and Tea: Just like lunch, daily stops to the coffee house can get expensive. Here at DaVinci coworking space, we’ve got free coffee, espresso, and tea so that you can wake up without having pay so much for it!

Meeting Rooms: How big is any office space you rent going to be? After all, the bigger it is the higher your rent is going to be. So when you’re looking for office space, chances are that you won’t have enough for a meeting room. If that’s the case, impressing potential clients and partners is going to be hard.

Lounge Areas: Will your office space have enough room to relax? It will if you rent some space from DaVinci Institute!

A coworking space is a great way to save money and get the best amenities available. Contact us and schedule a tour today.

DaVinci Institute Welcomes G A Chihoski & Associates https://www.davinciinstitute.com/in-coworking-space/davinci-institute-welcomes-g-a-chihoski-associates/ Tue, 16 Feb 2016 15:57:02 +0000 http://www.davinciinstitute.com/?p=640 Gabriel Chihoski recently leased one of the offices at the DaVinci Institute’s incubator space in Westminster for his consulting business G A Chihoski & Associates.

“It was time to move out of the home office for a better working environment and more professional address. Customers come to me for help with some very complex and involved problems. I need to be able to think and work without interruption or distraction. Having an office with a door also gives me privacy for client calls and security for sensitive client property. My productivity jumped the day I moved in and has stayed high. There is a nice entrepreneurial vibe here too, which I really like. I’ve met some great like- minded people here.”

“This space has all of the amenities of an established company. I don’t have to worry about any of that. Having 24/7 access is really valuable when I need outside of “normal” hours. The location is great being less than 30 minutes to Boulder and Denver. It has been a great space to invite clients and associates. I always get very positive comments on the working and meeting environment DaVinci Institute has available here.”

– Gabriel Chihoski

About G A Chihoski & Associates, LLC:

G A Chihoski & Associates, LLC provides business and engineering consulting services for companies in the areas of Product Development and Manufacturing Planning. While he still calls Colorado home, Gabriel has worked in Europe, Asia, and extensively in the Bay Area of California.

Ghost Town .coms of the Future https://www.davinciinstitute.com/uncategorized/ghost-town-coms-of-the-future/ Wed, 09 Dec 2015 22:15:36 +0000 http://www.davinciinstitute.com/?p=372 Ghost towns are a rich part of world history. There are literally thousands of examples of these now-irrelevant pin pricks on a map. Overnight sensations quickly became a distant memory in the years that followed.
Is the Internet today really that much different than the gold rush stories of the late 1800s?
For ghost towns, the reasons behind their demise vary tremendously. Pripyat, a small town in northern Ukraine, reached a population of 50,000 before the Chernobyl Nuclear Power disaster. Today, it is glowing with abandonment.
Jonestown, Guyana was founded as both a “socialist paradise” and a “sanctuary” from media scrutiny by cult leader Rev Jim Jones. After reaching a population of nearly 1,000 people, the entire population participated in a mass suicide, causing it to become little more than an entry in the why-in-the-hell-did-they-listen-to-him history books.
These, of course, are unusual examples. But the world is filled with unusual examples. A disaster is still a disaster no matter how unusual the circumstances may be.
Will the digital ruins of today’s Internet ever compare to the physical ruins of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome? Will anyone even know they existed?

Ghost Brands

In 1962, Woolco began a 20 year rollercoaster ride through retail history. At its peak the Woolco name was a powerful force in the marketplace, with hundreds of big box stores in the U.S., Canada, and Great Britain employing tens of thousands of people. Today the name hardly merits a mention in history books.
In the 1970s, IBM’s Selectric Typewriter had established itself as a critical cornerstone of office activity. But when computers arrived in the 1980, typewriters began to disappear and now the Selectric brand is little more than a museum piece.
In 1999 some of the top Internet properties were Lycos, Xoom, Excite, AltaVista, and GeoCities. Each of them were attracting millions of web visitors each month, competing head to head with companies like Microsoft, Yahoo, and Amazon. Today each exists in name only, resting quietly in the shadow of its former existence.

Organic Content Creation

As we entered the 2000s, many companies began to focus on organic content creation with customer doing most of the heavy lifting when it comes to the time and labor used to build a primo web property.
As a result of this trend, data has been accumulating so fast that companies are investing heavily in server capacity to accommodate customer demand.

While the exact numbers are being closely guarded, here are some notable data points to consider:

Google is rumored to manage over one million servers in its various data centers around the globe. Google’s data capacity for its search, YouTube, G-Mail, and other data-heavy services is said to be over twice the size of its competitors – Microsoft, Amazon, Apple, Yahoo, and IBM.
Microsoft’s newest data center in Chicago has been architected around installing entire containers filled with servers. Each container holds over 2,000 servers and can be installed in less than eight hours.
Amazon currently runs the world’s largest online store and one of the world’s largest cloud computing operations.
IBM currently operates eight million square feet of data center space on six continents.
EDS is now managing over 380,000 servers in 180 data centers.
Facebook’s data centers store more than 40 billion photos, and users upload 40 million new photos each day – about 2,000 photos every second.
The Tokyo Data Center serves as Japan’s Internet backbone. Japan claims it to be the largest data center in the world
IDC is predicting that the cost of powering data centers around the world will reach $40 billion annually by 2012.

How long before that number doubles, triples, or quadruples?

The difference today between the ghost towns of the Wild West and the brand names of the 70s is the speed with which changes are happening.
Organic growth often leads to organic abandonment. Is the speed with which they arrive a predictor of the speed with which they will leave?
Future Ruins Viewed as a Digital Past
As we look at the next generation of the Internet, watching carefully as it unfolds, we cannot help but be struck by how quickly it has infiltrated our lives and how much of our attention it currently commands.
Much like the physical structures in our cities that form along the horizons of our urban landscapes, the data structures inside today’s data giants represent some of mankind’s most remarkable feats. True, they exist only as a digital compliment to the bricks and steel of physical buildings, but they hold within them vital clues about who we are, what we find valuable, and our drives and passions for forging ahead.

So what will happen to the likes of these ground-losing giants?

  • Second Life – Less than 3 years ago this one time buzz-dominator of the virtual world’s industry was the darling of media discussions, but has now been relegated to competing for mindshare with lesser contenders like video games and social media.
  • MySpace – People have rapidly shifted from the chaotic page-building systems on MySpace to the cleaner look and interface on Facebook. How long before some new contender arrives and begin to steal market share from both?
  • Plaxo – Starting off as a constantly updating business card service, Plaxo has lost ground to other mindshare grabbers like LinkedIn and Twitter.
  • Monster.com – Monster suffered a 33% decline in revenues in 2009 compared to 2008 as the bad economy and lack of jobs drove many would be customers to CraigsList and other contenders.
  • Friendster – An early pioneer in social media, Friendster has lost its footing and remains a distant memory among the historians for social media.
  • PhotoBucket – Riding on the coattails of MySpace, this one-time darling of the photo hosting world has lost ground to companies like Flickr and Picassa.

Certainly each of the companies has the potential to breathe new life into their business and add buoyancy to their sinking ship. But even the best business managers can only hold things together for a while.
Life expectancy for modern day businesses, even the remarkable ones, is measured in decades, not centuries.
Are today’s success stories nothing more than a prelude to tomorrow’s disaster stories?
The digital world as it exists today contains the keys to humanity, the raw essence of personhood, and in the long run, the future of our children’s children.
More important than the decaying wood and weed infested streets of physical ghost towns, what will happen to the data reserves and important scraps of our civilization that can be instantly erased with the flip of a switch rather than the erosion of time?

These are all hard questions without good answers. But rest assured, the ghost town era of the Internet is coming, and for some, it has already arrived.

By Thomas Frey

The Urgency Paradox https://www.davinciinstitute.com/uncategorized/the-urgency-paradox/ Wed, 09 Dec 2015 22:14:00 +0000 http://www.davinciinstitute.com/?p=370 “Delivered in 30 minutes or it’s free!,” “One-hour photo,” or “Overnight delivery” were common slogans from 20 years ago. Today, the urgency of business has shifted into an entirely new gear.
An on-demand generation has grown accustomed to an instant-world. Text sent, text received. Hear a good song, own it instantly. Record a funny YouTube video, the world is watching within seconds.
But while many aspect of technology have ramped up, pushing business to the limits, social urgency has slowed to a crawl.
You couples have somehow mastered the fine art of long engagements. Very often couples will continue to date for 8-10 years before getting married.
After World War II couples tended to marry in their early 20s. Today, with all the background noise of failed marriages and divorce, couples are examining their pre-marriage life through the lens of an extended test-drive.
Many women and couples are putting off childbirth, often waiting until their late 30s or 40s before giving birth to a child. Record numbers of women in their 40s are now pregnant.
With work life and family life becoming increasingly blurred and seemingly all vacations turning into working vacations, there are many new social movements to “live off the clock” and regain control of our lives.
In many parts of Europe and the U.S. the “slow food movement” is gaining ground…. slowly. Slow food is everything that fast food is not. Well-planned, hyper-individualized, slowly prepared, slowly-consumed, and slowly savored.
Food is a common language among people. Our universal need for food creates an important interdependency among us, and it makes sense that our need to form an anchor-post of stability in our increasingly fast-paced world would begin with food.

The Bigger Picture

Taking a bigger picture perspective, as life expectancy increases at a pace of 3 years every decade, much of our personal urgency will disappear. More than half of all babies born in wealthy countries today will live well past 100. Not only will they live longer, but those added years will be spent with fewer disability and fewer limitations on daily routines than in the past.
In the years ahead we will begin to see a greater partitioning between the urgency-categories of our lives. The critical differentiator will be personal urgency vs. competitive urgency.
On one hand, the time-is-money adage will continue to drive the world of commerce and business. We will expect ever greater levels of instant-fulfillment, instant-performance, and instant-gratification. More than instant downloads of music, news, and information, we will demand instant everything from the digital world.
We will also expect reduced times in other areas of life. Basic answers to questions, products delivered to our homes, and resolution of problems will all shift into a higher gear.
But contrary to life in the business fast-lane, other timetables will shift into reverse.
Young people will find little urgency to purchase a home when other forms of living allow them to live free, carefree, and mobile.
Planning for retirement will become an increasingly abstract notion among young people. To them the retirement age is shifting to the far distant end of the life spectrum and may very well disappear altogether over time.
Selling life insurance will also tend to be more difficult with more people living single and living longer.
The popular trend towards creating a “bucket list” of things to accomplish-before-you-die is increasingly being transferred into the category of “less-urgent” as our life expectancy climbs.
It’s easy to see that the pace of life is changing, but not everything is speeding up. People who can make sense of the “urgency paradox” will uncover huge new opportunities in the years ahead.

Roman Numerals: Preventing Higher Math https://www.davinciinstitute.com/uncategorized/roman-numerals-preventing-higher-math/ Wed, 09 Dec 2015 22:13:20 +0000 http://www.davinciinstitute.com/?p=368 During the time of the ancient Greek civilization several mathematicians became famous for their work.  People like Archimedes, Pythagoras, Euclid, Hipparchus, Posidonius and Ptolemy all brought new elements of thinking to society, furthering the field of math, building on the earlier work of Babylonian and Egyptian mathematicians.

A few generations later the Romans became the dominant society on earth, and the one aspect of Roman society that was remarkably absent was the lack of Roman mathematicians.  Rest assured, the scholarly members of Roman society came from a good gene pool and they were every bit as gifted and talented as the Greeks.  But Roman society was being held hostage by its own systems.  One of the primary culprit for the lack of Roman mathematicians was their numbering system – Roman Numerals and its lack of numeric positioning.

While its easy for us today to look at Roman numerals and say that it was a pretty stupid numbering system, it was just one of many inferior numbering systems in ancient times.  But the feature that made Roman numerals so bad was the fact that each number lacked specific numeric positioning and was in fact an equation, and this extra layer of complexity prevented people from doing higher math.

Roman numerals were a system problem, and a huge one at that.  They prevented an entire civilization from furthering the field of math and science.

Roman society was so immersed in their numbering system that they had no clue that it was preventing them from doing even rudimentary math such as adding a column of numbers or simple multiplication or division, a feat still handled by abacus. It also prevented them from creating some of the more sophisticated banking and accounting systems and restricted academia from moving forward in areas of science, astronomy, and medicine.

Ratchet forward to today.  We live in a society where virtually everything is different than the days of the Roman Empire.  But what seems so counterintuitive to most is that we are even more dependant today on our systems than the Romans ever were.  Most of these systems we take for granted – systems for weights and measurement, systems for accounting, banking, procurement, managing our traffic, and labeling our food.  With each of these systems we are much like the Romans, immersed in the use of these systems to a point where we seldom step back and question the reasoning and logic behind them.

Our systems govern virtually every aspect of our lives.  They determine how we live and where we live, what we eat and where we work, where and when we travel, how much money we will make, the job we do, the friends we have, who we marry, and even how long we will live.  But much like fish not understanding what water is, we seldom step back to understand the context of our existence.

As a starting point, one question we should be asking is “What systems do we employ today that are the equivalent of Roman numerals that are preventing us from doing great things?”

This simple question is very revealing.  It has a way of opening a Pandora’s box full of friction points, inefficiencies, and flow restrictors that we contend with every day.  Our systems are what govern the flow of commerce, govern our effectiveness as members of society, and create much of the stress we face on a daily basis.

After studying American systems and applying this “equivalency to Roman numerals” test, it is easy to conclude that we are only operating at somewhere between 5-10% efficiency, maybe less.  The upside is huge.

So what are some examples of restrictive systems that are preventing us from doing great things?  Here are just a few examples:

  • Income Tax System – The income tax system is currently the mother of all boat anchors, slowing commerce and the pace of business to a crawl.  Currently somewhere in the neighborhood of 64,000 pages in length, the US tax code that we use today will stand as a shining example throughout history as one of the world’s most incomprehensible systems of all times.
  • Half-Implemented Metric System – America is well-known for its a half-implemented metric system where people are purchasing cars with 3.2 liter engines and filling them with quarts of oil.  Several well-known disasters have been attributed to the engineering complexities involved in converting between English and Metric.
  • Keyboards – Stemming from the days of mechanical typewriters with typebars that fast typers found easy to jam, we still use the keyboards that were designed to slow the speed of typers by placing the most frequently used keys randomly across the face of the keyboard.  But keyboards in any configuration are an extremely inefficient way to transfer knowledge from one person to another.
  • Laws – We now have more laws on the books in the US than any country at any time in history.  There aren’t even any good estimates as to the number of laws on the books in the US.  With each city, county, state, federal agency, and taxing district able to issue their own regulations, mandates, ordinances, and laws, we have created a legal snake pit of intertwined and overlapping rules that we are expected to live by.

Lest you think the US is the only country with system problems, consider some of the major issues plaguing other countries:

  • Chinese Alphabet – The number of Chinese characters contained in the Kangxi dictionary is approximately 47,035, although a large number of these are rarely-used variants accumulated over time. Studies carried out in China have shown that full literacy requires a knowledge of between three and four thousand characters.
  • Languages in India – The country of India has a diverse number of languages spoken by the different groups of people. At least 800 different languages and around 2,000 dialects have been identified.  The Constitution of India has mandated that Hindi and English be the official two languages of communication for the Central government. However, each of India’s state governments are free to name their own official language.
  • Currencies in Japan – Japan has become the global laboratory for experimental and complementary currencies with the number of officially sanctioned currencies now exceeding 600.

Much like the rest of the world, we are a long ways from optimizing the systems that govern our lives.  Inefficiencies have become a way of life with most people resigned to “leave well enough alone”.

But the freedom that we value so highly in the US is only a fraction of what it can be. Our ability to confront and deal with some of the big problems ahead is highly dependent upon our ability to seriously reinvent society,,,,,  one system at a time.